Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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For that which remains stationary putrefies standing water, for exampleand that which putrefies and does not move causes atistotle ; but that which is rejected passes away before it becomes corrupt. Is it because something must be drawn out from unclean sores, and it is foreign moisture which must be extracted?

A proof of the above is afforded by the treatment applied to those who are wasting to death ; for, whenever they have any aristptle liquid administered to them, the result is that their vitality 2 is revived, which implies that their bodily dissolution is due 20 to the lack of such a substance. Those on the other hand who are phlegmatic are afflicted with sore throats and catarrh of the lungs.

The result is that they suffer from unsatisfied desires, like women ; for the moisture is scanty and has not enough 30 force to find its way out and quickly cools. Why is it that peoblemata is more languid after sexual inter- 6 course than any other animal? In the case of other persons because in the 25 spring the phlegm is not purged away owing to its excess as happens when the weather is warmbut congeals owing to the cold when the summer and warmth succeeds, setting up violent liquefaction, humours form in those who are bilious and dry because their bodies lack moisture and are naturally parched ; but these humours are slight and so 30 such people suffer from dry ophthalmia.

Why is it that, if the summer and the autumn have 20 been rainy and damp, the ensuing winter is unhealthy? Or is it because sweat is unconcocted moisture, and such moisture resides in the upper parts because the process aristotld its aristogle takes place there?

Why are short walks fatiguing? There are three miscellaneous chapters 4, rpoblemata, Moreover any thing else which is produced from the semen, as for instance, when it putrefies, a worm, or the so-called monstrosities, 2 o when there is corruption in the womb, are not to be reckoned as offspring. A body of equable temperament therefore often feels weariness, but throws it off more easily, because the whole body shares it ; for the suffering, being distributed over a larger problmeata, is weaker and aristotl more easily got rid aristitle.


The Effects of Touch. The moisture then, being cut off, collects, and when the breath is relaxed comes all out at once. In a word, all things that are contrary to nature 15 are alien to the body, and many of the things that grow there are contrary to nature.

ARISTOTLE, Problems | Loeb Classical Library

For it is noticeable that anything which admits of extreme 86o J cold also admits of extreme heat, water, for example, and a stone, of which the former boils quicker than other things, the latter burns more. When ought drugs to be employed and not the knife or 34 20 cauterization? The words enclosed in brackets are taken from T. Further, those who are sober have more power of judgement, while those who are very drunk make no attempt to exercise their judgement ; but those who are only slightly intoxicated can still exercise their judgement because they are not very drunk, but they exercise it badly because they are not sober, and they are ready to despise some of their neighbours and imagine that 15 they are being slighted by others.

In walking therefore on hilly ground, if the distance be long, 20 the change provides a rest, and the same movement is not continued for long, even in the case of horses, owing to the change.


Or is it because the belly is exerted less than the other parts, because it has no joints? Similarly the competitor in the fivefold contest 5 finds resistance in the weights 6 which he holds, and the runner in his arms which 1 Cp. Why do those who stand still in the sun become warmer 36 than those who move, and this although movement is pro ductive of heat? Why is it that in some people 2 sores are formed as the 27 result of exertion?

For pepper promotes 15 urine, while scammony is purgative.

Problems, Volume I

This also occurs for the same reason in certain forms of illness, 5 and likewise in those who are frightened and in the dying. The Winds Fear and Courage.

Fishes, however, have sexual intercourse without friction. This problem is referred to as Aristotelian by Athenaeus x.

It has been the subject of a complex transmission. But those who are effeminate by nature are so constituted that little or no semen is secreted where it is secreted by those who are in a natural state, 8 but it collects in this part of the body.

Nor does it require melting, for it is dispersed about the body like blood. For they are only conscious of the ensuing feeling of discomfort, and so avoid those with whom they have had intercourse as being the cause of this feeling. Why do we perspire more on the back than on the front 14 of the body? Is it because it is 30 the presence of anything in proper proportions which produces each required effect, and so, if it produces this effect, its presence in arisrotle quantity will not produce a greater effect, or will rather produce the contrary effect, for it is because a thing is proportionate 6 that it produces a certain effect?


Is it because the stomach has no action upon a large amount of liquid swallowed at 25 once, but it goes unaltered to its proper place and the proper place for unconcocted liquid is the bladderwhereas the stomach acts upon a small quantity and concocts it, so that it remains in the stomach and makes it moist? So the latter are not visible to them at all, while objects near at hand are not seen in their proper places, but appear to revolve in a circle and not to be near or far, because, firstly, pdoblemata circular motion makes it less possible for the sight to be directed towards distant objects ; for it is difficult to do two contrary things at the 1 Cp.

Is it because owing to the heat and movement they are in the same condition as during sexual intercourse? By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Now the semen is formed most plentifully under conditions of locality and at seasons that have these characteristics, 7 in spring for example, which is naturally moist and hot.

For unless a part of the body is fat, the heat will not melt it properly, nor will it do so if the atistotle is fat but does not co-operate in the sexual act, as is the case with the stomach.

For the flesh of those who wash in cold water becomes solid, and the hot matter collects within ; but the flesh of those who use warm water becomes 5 rare, and the hot matter is diverted to the outside of the body. The result is that, first, ophthalmia occurs when the excretion in the region of the head liquefies, and, problwmata, fever ensues. Or is it true that the stomach does not become 1 5 gradually leaner 4 but solider?